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直流电动机的降压启动时的降压方式与应用

  直流电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机要在接(jie)通直流电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源后才能开始转动(dong),速度升高(gao)到一(yi)定转速后会稳定运行,这(zhei)样(yang)的(de)(de)过程(cheng)就被(bei)称为直流电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机的(de)(de)启(qi)动(dong)过程(cheng)。直流电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机有三种基(ji)本的(de)(de)启(qi)动(dong)方(fang)式,它们分别(bie)是变阻(zu)器启(qi)动(dong)、全压启(qi)动(dong)和降压启(qi)动(dong)。首先,变阻(zu)器启(qi)动(dong)过程(cheng)是在电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)枢(shu)回(hui)路(lu)中接(jie)入(ru)一(yi)组电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻(zu)串,通过这(zhei)组电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻(zu)串来限制启(qi)动(dong)时的(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流。

  这(zhei)种启(qi)动(dong)的优点是(shi)启(qi)动(dong)时(shi)的电流比较(jiao)小,缺点是(shi)电阻串体积比较(jiao)大、比较(jiao)重,在整个启(qi)动(dong)过程中要(yao)消(xiao)耗一(yi)些能量。其次,全压启(qi)动(dong)指的是(shi)电动(dong)机直(zhi)接接到相(xiang)应的电源上进行(xing)启(qi)动(dong)。

  这种(zhong)启(qi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)优点(dian)是(shi)操(cao)作简单易行、不(bu)用其他的(de)(de)辅助设备,缺点(dian)是(shi)咋(za)启(qi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)时候电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)会(hui)比较大,这个缺点(dian)的(de)(de)限制使得全压(ya)(ya)启(qi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)只能在(zai)一些小型的(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)上使用。最后,降压(ya)(ya)启(qi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)是(shi)指在(zai)直(zhi)流(liu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)的(de)(de)启(qi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)过程中,暂时降低供电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)来限制启(qi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu),在(zai)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)降低的(de)(de)瞬间,转速和反电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)(dong)势会(hui)逐(zhu)渐升高,并逐(zhu)步提高供电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya),最终满足额定电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)和转速的(de)(de)要(yao)求。这种(zhong)启(qi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)方式使电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)的(de)(de)线性启(qi)动(dong)(dong)(dong),不(bu)会(hui)产生冲击转矩、电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)。生产中采用降压(ya)(ya)方式启(qi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)有直(zhi)流(liu)发(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)、电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)组、晶闸管(guan)整流(liu)装(zhuang)置。

  对(dui)于(yu)直流(liu)(liu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机来说,其启动(dong)的(de)(de)(de)瞬间转速为(wei)零,因此电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)枢中(zhong)(zhong)反(fan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)势也等于(yu)零,那(nei)么就可(ke)(ke)以得(de)出通过电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)枢的(de)(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)是(shi)外界的(de)(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压与电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)枢中(zhong)(zhong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻(zu)的(de)(de)(de)比(bi)值(zhi)。电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)枢中(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻(zu)阻(zu)值(zhi)比(bi)较小(xiao),因此全压启动(dong)时的(de)(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)会比(bi)较大,在启动(dong)的(de)(de)(de)瞬间启动(dong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)最高可(ke)(ke)以到(dao)达(da)额(e)定电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)的(de)(de)(de) 20倍,最低可(ke)(ke)到(dao)达(da)额(e)定电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)的(de)(de)(de) 10 倍左右。这(zhei)样强大的(de)(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)通过电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)枢时会产生大量的(de)(de)(de)热量使得(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)枢温度很快(kuai)的(de)(de)(de)上升,此外这(zhei)么大的(de)(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)还会产生电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁力,并(bing)造成电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机换向恶化,产生强烈火花。

  因此(ci)对(dui)于功率较大的(de)电(dian)(dian)动(dong)机来说,其启动(dong)电(dian)(dian)流一般(ban)为额定电(dian)(dian)流的(de) 6 倍(bei)到(dao) 8 倍(bei)之间(jian),这样的(de)电(dian)(dian)动(dong)机一般(ban)不使用(yong)全压启动(dong)。


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