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小功率直流电机调整系统

  直(zhi)流电机(ji)(ji)是(shi)(shi)我们(men)大家在(zai)(zai)平时(shi)最经常用(yong)(yong)的(de)一些(xie)东西了,我们(men)大家在(zai)(zai)各(ge)种(zhong)各(ge)样(yang)的(de)一些(xie)场(chang)合都还是(shi)(shi)会(hui)用(yong)(yong)到(dao)一些(xie)小功率(lv)的(de)直(zhi)流电机(ji)(ji)的(de),但是(shi)(shi)如(ru)果我们(men)在(zai)(zai)电机(ji)(ji)的(de)使用(yong)(yong)中往(wang)往(wang)都还是(shi)(shi)会(hui)遇到(dao)一些(xie)问(wen)题的(de),那么让(rang)我们(men)应该如(ru)何(he)来做的(de)更好(hao)呢(ni)!

  一(yi)、主(zhu)(zhu)电(dian)(dian)路主(zhu)(zhu)电(dian)(dian)路直(zhi)接输人220V交流,经(jing)晶(jing)闸(zha)(zha)管半控(kong)桥整流后供(gong)给电(dian)(dian)动机电(dian)(dian)枢,整流后的电(dian)(dian)压较高,适合额定电(dian)(dian)压为150至180V功率(lv)小于2千(qian)瓦(wa)的直(zhi)流电(dian)(dian)机。这里晶(jing)闸(zha)(zha)管TI和二极管V3及(ji)‘理和V4采用电(dian)(dian)力(li)半导体半臂电(dian)(dian)桥模块(kuai),因此(ci)安装方便(bian),结构(gou)紧凑。

  直流电机的励磁绕组L2由二极管(guan)Vl、V2及借(jie)用(yong)电枢回路的V3、V4组成的整流桥供(gong)电,节(jie)省了两只二极管(guan)。

  为(wei)确保(bao)晶(jing)闸管(guan)(guan)(guan)关断时(shi),电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)枢电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)连(lian)续且平滑在(zai)主电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)中(zhong)接(jie)人了(le)续流(liu)(liu)二极(ji)(ji)(ji)管(guan)(guan)(guan)vs及(ji)平波电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)抗(kang)器11-二、同(tong)(tong)步(bu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)获(huo)取及(ji)脉(mai)(mai)(mai)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)触(chu)(chu)发(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)一般单(dan)相(xiang)半(ban)控(kong)桥整流(liu)(liu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)均采(cai)用(yong)(yong)单(dan)结晶(jing)体(ti)管(guan)(guan)(guan)触(chu)(chu)发(fa)方式,同(tong)(tong)步(bu)信(xin)号(hao)采(cai)用(yong)(yong)稳压(ya)(ya)(ya)二极(ji)(ji)(ji)管(guan)(guan)(guan)稳压(ya)(ya)(ya)后的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)消波电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya),缺点(dian)(dian)(dian)是(shi)触(chu)(chu)发(fa)脉(mai)(mai)(mai)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)移相(xiang)范(fan)围减小。本电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)采(cai)用(yong)(yong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)过(guo)零(ling)点(dian)(dian)(dian)时(shi)刻作为(wei)同(tong)(tong)步(bu)信(xin)号(hao)一同(tong)(tong)步(bu)范(fan)围可达成1700以上。由(you)二极(ji)(ji)(ji)管(guan)(guan)(guan)Vl、、产叹、V3、V4整流(liu)(liu)桥输(shu)(shu)出的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)单(dan)相(xiang)脉(mai)(mai)(mai)动直(zhi)流(liu)(liu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)一路(lu)(lu)径(jing)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻R12、R13分压(ya)(ya)(ya),21)2稳压(ya)(ya)(ya)获(huo)得20V的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)直(zhi)流(liu)(liu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)作为(wei)触(chu)(chu)发(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)等的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工作电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan),另一路(lu)(lu)径(jing)R21、咫(zhi)2分压(ya)(ya)(ya)送至(zhi)三极(ji)(ji)(ji)昔(xi)B(沁的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)基(ji)极(ji)(ji)(ji)。每(mei)当(dang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)过(guo)零(ling)时(shi)B(;6截(jie)止(zhi),而B以、BGS饱合(he)导通,B〔科将电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容(rong)C12短(duan)接(jie)以保(bao)证(zheng)在(zai)任意电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)半(ban)周期(qi)都是(shi)从零(ling)点(dian)(dian)(dian)开始(shi)充(chong)(chong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),BGS集电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)极(ji)(ji)(ji)输(shu)(shu)出的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)低电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)平信(xin)号(hao)使(shi)ICI复位(wei),其3脚输(shu)(shu)出低电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)平以保(bao)证(zheng)晶(jing)闸管(guan)(guan)(guan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)触(chu)(chu)发(fa)信(xin)号(hao)在(zai)任意电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)半(ban)周期(qi)内都以电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)过(guo)零(ling)点(dian)(dian)(dian)作为(wei)基(ji)准三极(ji)(ji)(ji)管(guan)(guan)(guan)仪乃(nai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)集电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)极(ji)(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)为(wei)(?l2充(chong)(chong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),当(dang)单(dan)结管(guan)(guan)(guan)BGI导通时(shi)C12放电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)使(shi)三极(ji)(ji)(ji)管(guan)(guan)(guan)氏(shi)泥饱合(he)导通,集电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)极(ji)(ji)(ji)输(shu)(shu)出的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)低电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)平使(shi)ICI置位(wei),其3脚输(shu)(shu)出高电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)平,经光(guang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)藕合(he)器输(shu)(shu)出触(chu)(chu)发(fa)脉(mai)(mai)(mai)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)送至(zhi)晶(jing)闸管(guan)(guan)(guan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)门(men)极(ji)(ji)(ji)这(zhei)里时(shi)基(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)SE555的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)作用(yong)(yong)是(shi)加大脉(mai)(mai)(mai)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)宽度.脉(mai)(mai)(mai)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)宽度值由(you)R6、C7的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)充(chong)(chong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)时(shi)间常数(shu)决定。光(guang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)祸合(he)器的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)作用(yong)(yong)是(shi)增大脉(mai)(mai)(mai)冲(chong)(chong)(chong)幅度,以确保(bao)晶(jing)闸竹可靠触(chu)(chu)发(fa)导通。

  三(san)、给(ji)定和(he)反(fan)馈控制(zhi)为提高电(dian)机(ji)的(de)机(ji)械特性硬(ying)度和(he)减小转差率,本电(dian)路增(zeng)加了电(dian)压负(fu)(fu)反(fan)馈和(he)电(dian)流正反(fan)馈控制(zhi),给(ji)定电(dian)位器(qi)RP3和(he)电(dian)压取(qu)样电(dian)位器(qi)RPI、电(dian)流取(qu)样电(dian)位器(qi)RPZ共同控制(zhi)三(san)极(ji)管以刀的(de)导通(tong)程度,进而(er)控制(zhi)1狱3的(de)集电(dian)极(ji)电(dian)流,使负(fu)(fu)载(zai)发生变化时触(chu)发脉冲的(de)相位随之变化,电(dian)机(ji)转速得以基本恒定。

  通过这样的几种方式(shi)的调试(shi)我(wo)(wo)(wo)们还是可以得到一个比(bi)较不(bu)错的方式(shi)的,当然我(wo)(wo)(wo)们在(zai)使用各种电机的时候会(hui)有些差异只要我(wo)(wo)(wo)们能够更好的去调的话(hua)还是会(hui)非常的不(bu)错的。


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